The National Commission on Floods has calculated that the land areas prone to floods have doubled from 20 million hectares in 1971 to 40 million hectares in 1980. The worst flood suffering states are Bihar, Assam, Orissa, U.R and West Bengal.
The management of rainfall and resultant run-off is very important and found to depend on watersheds. A watershed is an area bounded by the divide line of water.
Thus it may be a drainage basin or stream. The Himalayas are one of the most vital watersheds in the world. These watersheds are threatened by deforestation and other ecological malpractices and have resulted in depletion of water resources. Thus for watershed management following measures to be adopted
1. Soil and land use survey.
2. Soil conservation in catchment of River Valley Projects and flood prone areas.
3. Afforestation, Social Forestry Programs and Drought Prone Development Programs.
4. Desert development.
5. Control of shifting cultivation.